Chronology of Development Computer
Science and Technology in Ukraine
Chronology of the Formation and Development of Computer in Ukraine
The possibility of mechanizing certain forms of logical reasoning was presented, and demonstrated with a simple machine, by A.N.Shchukarev. Kharkiv Technological Institute.
The p-n transition was experimentally discovered by V.E.Lashkariov, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. This principle was later independently discovered by American scientists and used in the development of the transistor.
The basic structure and principles of constructing a universal stored-program electronic computer were developed (independently from American and British scientists) by S.A.Lebedev. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
"MESM", the first digital electronic computer in the USSR and in the Continental Europe was formally recognised by the State Committee. S.A.Lebedev, L.N.Dashevskyi, E.A.Shkabara. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. The principles of construction and architecture for matrix and vector processor were developed.
The first specialized electronic computer in Ukraine for solving systems of linear algebraic equations was created. S.A.Lebedev, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Z.L.Rabinovich, Y.V.Blagovishchenskiy, etc. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (1952-1956).
"Kiev", the first asynchronous computer in Ukraine to use the address programming language was developed. B.V.Gnedenko, V.M.Glushkov, V.S.Koroliuk, E.L.Yushchenko, L.N.Dashevskiy, E.A.Shkabara, S.B.Pogrebynskiy. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (1954-1957).
"Dnepr", the first semiconductor-based multipurpose control computer in the USSR and Ukraine was developed (1958-1961). It was approved for serial production by the State Commission on December 9, 1961. The birth of "Dnepr" was the catalyst for building the first major computer-producing plant in the USSR, known as "Electronmash". "Dnepr" was manufactured for more than 10 years, with over 500 units produced for use in many of the earliest industrial control systems, also in research and other areas. V.M.Glushkov, B.N.Malinovsky, A.G.Kukharchuk, etc. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. "Electronmash". In 1977 the State prize of Ukraine was awarded to a rocket engine testing system based on "Dnepr" (B.N.Malinovsky and employees of the Pivdennyi machine-building plant). Theory of digital automatons was developed which became a theoretical basis for computer development. V.M.Glushkov. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (1961).
Glushkov was awarded the Lenin prize for his monograph "Synthesis of digital automatons" and a number of other works in this field (1964).
A patent was awarded for the step-based microprogram control. It was implemented in computers of the "MIR" family. V.M.Glushkov. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
Parabolic interpolation for system "Avangard" for the automated cutting of ship hull's details. Chief designer, G.A.Mikhailov. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
The first computers in the USSR designed for engineering computations were developed. The models were called "Promin" (1964), "MIR1" (1965), "MIR2" (1969) and "MIR3" (1972). They went into mass production at the Electronmash plant and were the predecessors of personal computers V.M.Glushkov, S.B.Pogrebynskiy, A.O.Letichevskiy, Y.V.Blagovishchenskiy, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. 1968 State Prize of the USSR. "Electronmash".
"Autooperator", the first digital regulator in the USSR was developed and built. E.T.Belikov. Scientific-production association (SPA) "Impulse".
The idea for circuit implementation of high-level languages was first suggested and implemented in the "Ukraine" computer project. V.M.Glushkov, Z.L.Rabinovich, A.A.Stogniy, etc. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
"Dnepr-2", the first information-controlling managing system for computer control systems in Ukraine was developed. (1964-1967). V.M.Glushkov, A.A.Stogniy, A.G.Kukharchuk. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, "Electronmash".
"Kiev 67" and "Kiev 70", unique specialized computers for automation of designing and BIC manufacturing were created. V.P.Derkach and others. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. (1965-1970).
Digital tools of industrial engineering systems were developed (in the SPA "Impulse"), and serial production began of a family of models M6000 - M7000 ASVT M, which became the basis for building controlling process systems in all spheres of the economy and some military areas of the USSR. During ten years, the Kyiv plant of computer controlling machines, Severodonetsk Instrument Plant and Tbilisi plant of controlling computers produced over 18,000 M6000 systems, the basis for developing more than 15,000 controlling systems. A.A.Novohatniy, V.V.Rezanov etc. SPA"Impulse." State Prize of USSR (1979).
The series of specialized and key-driven mini computers "Iskra" was developed and produced. The Ostrovskyi prize (1968). G.I.Kornienko, B.G.Mudla, S.S.Zabara. The Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. "Schetmash" plant, Kursk (Russia).
"Kashtan" computers for automated fabric cutting in accordance with specified design were put into production. Y.A.Pavlenko. "Electronmash".
The first microcalculator in Ukraine and the Soviet Union with 4 large-scale integrated circuits was developed and put into mass production. S.A.Moraliov, L.F.Marakhovskiy. Kyiv Research and production "Crystal" Company.
12 types of on-board computers (including radiation resistant models) were developed and manufactured for use in strategic rocket-space systems. Lenin Prize, State Prize of the USSR, State Prize of Ukraine. (1967-1989) A.I.Krivonosov, B.E.Vasilenko and others. Kharkiv Research and Production Company "Khartron", Kyiv Radioplant.
The "Carat" series (4 models) of very reliable specialised computers were developed and put into mass production. These computers were used for weapons and control systems in navy ships and submarines, including atomic ships. The computers were also applied for navigation purposes on trade ships and on atomic ice-breakers. "Carat" computers were incorporated within 60 different systems. V.N.Plotnikov, V.I.Dolgov, G.E.Gai and others. Kyiv Research Institute for Radioelectronics, "Burevesnik" plant (1969-1989).
The control and measurement system "Bars" was developed and a small number were produced. Gold medal of Dresden exhibition. V.I.Skurikhin, A.A.Morozov. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
"UPO-1", the first minicomputer in the Ukraine went into small-scale production. It was the primary processing unit used in measurement systems. B.N.Malinovsky,V.S.Kalenchuk, P.M.Sivachenko. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, Zhytomyr plant "Izmeritel".
The "Encyclopedia of Cybernetics" was published - a worldwide first. Academician V.M.Glushkov, A.I.Kukhtenko, B.N. Malinovsky and others. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
Specialized key-driven computers "Mria", "Chaika", "Moskva", "Neptun" were developed and produced, starting from 1970. G.S.Golodnyak, V.N.Petrunek, G.T.Makarov etc., Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Plants of the Ministry of Defence.
The powerful universal computer "M4030" was developed and produced. State prize of the Ukrainian SSR (1971-1973). A.F.Nezabitovskiy, S.S.Zabara. "Electronmash", Kyiv.
The USSR's first random access memory (RAM) was developed. (1024 32-bit number to the cycle of 1 ms). A.D.Beh, L.F.Danko, B.S.Ilyushin, E.G.Kretkov, V.M.Korsunsky, B.I.Pavlus, V.N.Pozy, V.I.Plahotny, M.A.Tereshin, V.V.Chernetsky. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
The mass production of large-scale integrated circuits began in Ukraine, for the first time in the former Soviet Union and Europe. S.A.Moralev, K.M.Krolevets, V.P.Belyavsky. Kyiv Research and production "Crystal" Company.
The USSR's first series of micro-computers was designed and produced, called "Electronika C5" (
Principles for constructing computer capable of recursion were presented, for the first time in the world. V.M.Glushkov, V.A.Miasnikov, I.B.Ignatiev. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Academy of Sciences of the USSR.
The USSR's first autonomous transportation robot TAIR was developed. It was a three-wheeled motorized vehicle, equipped with a system of sensors, able to move in a natural environment, avoiding obstacles. It was managed by a hardwired neural network. Nikolay Amosov, V.M.Belov, E.M.Kussul. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
"Neva", the specialized computer for digital communication systems was developed in cooperation with GDR (German Democratic Republic), and produced by GDR industry. A.G.Kukharchuk. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, "Robotron", GDR.
"M 180" ("Sokol"), the first mini computer in Ukraine was developed and produced in small numbers. It was used by the Academy of Sciences of USSR and other institutions to automate laboratory experiments. Ostrovskyi prize (1981). L.B.Malinovsky, V.S.Kalenchuk, N.I.Alishov, Y.S.Yakovlev and others. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR.
Mini computer "SOU-1" was developed. V.P.Denisenko, S.D.Pogorely, Korolev Production Association, B.N.Malinovsky, A.V.Palagin, Yu.S.Yakovlev, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Silver Medal USSR National Economy.
Ukraine's first signal processor for digital signal processing was developed. M.V.Semotyuk. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
New series of computers CM (12 types) were created by SPA "Impulse". They replaced computers Ì6000-Ì7000. A.A.Novokhatniy, V.V.Ryazanov, others. State Prize of UkSSR (1979)
A specialized series of computers called "Cycle" were designed and manufactured. They were used for controlling the production of blades for gas turbine engines. G.I.Kornienko, Y.T.Mitulinsky etc. Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR State Prize of the USSR (1976).
System for engineering of computer systems was developed. It was used in a number of organizations in the USSR. (1975-1977). V.M.Glushkov, Y.V.Kapitonova etc., Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR, Ministry of Radio Industry. State Prize of the USSR (1977).
Mini computer "Processor" was developed. A.V.Palagin, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. V.P.Denisenko, S.D.Pogorely. Korolev Production Association.
Development of "Sector", a new form of interface between computer hardware components. V.B.Reutov. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
Microcomputer "UVS-01" was developed. A.V.Kobylinsky, A.V.Palagin, S.D.Pogorely. "Crystal", Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Korolev Production Association.
"Simvol", the first alphanumeric graphic terminal with digital storage on a standard cassette in USSR was developed and produced. L.B.Malinovsky, I.M.Smetanin, A.I.Shikarev, V.N.Knyazev. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Cherkassy plant of telegraph equipment.
"Neuron", the first system of microcomputers in Ukraine was developed and produced in large numbers, along with debugging tools
A super powerful multiprocessor system on reconfigurable architecture (ASVT-PS) was created and produced. The model called PS 2000 , followed by PS 2100 (1.5 billion oper./sec) and PS 3000 (3 billion oper./sec). They were used for systems geophysical mineral exploration and a number of unique systems for military purpose. From 1981 to 1989, 150 PS 2000 complexes were produced by "Impulse". A.A.Novohatny, V.V.Rezanov etc. "Impulse", Severodonetsk (1965-1980). State Prize of UkSSR (1979).
The mass production of computing systems SM3 and SM4 for small computers systems began. A.F.Nezabitovsky, V.A.Afanasiev, S.S.Zabara. "Electronmash". State Prize of USSR (1981).
"Zvezda" computing system was developed. It was a high-speed computer for hydroacoustic information processing. O.M.Aleshchenko, V.Y.Lapiy, V.V.Kramskiy. Kyiv Research Institute "Hydroprybor". State Prize of the USSR Yu.V.Burau, O.M.Aleschenko etc. (1988).
Unique specialized on-board computers "MIG1", "MIG11", "MIG12", and "MIG13" were developed and produced They were used for controlling systems of space vehicles without any previous calculation of trajectory. G.S.Golodniak, V.N.Petrunek. Academy of Sciences of Ukrainian SSR. Enterprises of Ministry of Defence. State prize of the USSR (1984).
Dvelopment and production of compatible microprocessor series of personal computers: EC 1840, EC 1841, EC 1842, for offline use in local and global networks for a wide range of scientific, technical, economic, special problems, problems of management and record keeping. Y.S.Yakovlev, F.A.Tsventuh, N.V.Nesterenko, B.V.Novikov, Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Production in Minsk (Belarus).
Computer "Delta" - a specialized computer system for the collection and processing of telemetry data, and control of aerospace experiments was developed. Used for processing data received from Halley's Comet, as well as data on the radionuclides situation after the accident at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl. M.I.Dianov, V.I.Dianov. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
Development of a real-time processor PRV, used to create four digital systems of control gas puffing, positioning and the plasma parameters in TOKOMAK type thermonuclear facilities in Leningrad, Kharkov and Sukhumi, Moscow and Kharkov PTI It was also used in two international projects developing an experimental thermonuclear reactor (ITER). V.F.Gubarev, V.P.Boyun. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
A series of specialized computers was created and produced for preflight testing of ships, hydrofoils, for complex boundary sea trials of ships in the Navy, and for the monitoring and diagnosis of aircraft. State Prize of Ukraine. B.G.Mudla, V.I.Dianov, M.I.Dianov, V.F.Berdnikov, A.I.Kanivets, O.M.Shaleyko. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Plants of Ministry of Defence.
Unique super-productive systems
A system of modules for professional guidance (10 types) for a family of personal computers ES was developed. Modules are functionally and structurally finished products with software support. They are installed in the base unit or expansion unit. Used to link the PC to the object with component interface when building automatic systems for researching and managing various automated processes. Y.S.Yakovlev, N.V.Nesterenko, V.M.Egipko, V.A.Romanov, V.N.Korobeynikov, B.V.Novikov, and others. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Was produced in Minsk (Belarus).
Development of color alphanumeric and graphical terminal "Parus" with the tape drive. L.B.Malinovsky, I.M.Smetanin, A.I.Shikarev, V.N.Knyazev. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. Produced by Kyiv Radio plant.
Creation of the first neurocomputer in the USSR, modelled on the principle of ensemble stochastic neural networks. E.M.Kussul. Ukrainian Academy of Sciences.
1990 Development of highly reliable software and hardware systems to handle critical facilities, nuclear power control systems. "Impulse".
Production of family of compatible home PC's:
International computer society (IEEE Computer Society) awarded S.A.Lebedev with a medal "Pioneer of Computer Engineering" inscribed: "S.A.Lebedev 1902-1974. Developer and designer of the first computer in Soviet Union. Founder of the Soviet computer industry".
International computer society (IEEE Computer Society) awarded Victor M.Glushkov with a medal "Pioneer of Computer Engineering" inscribed: "V.M.Glushkov 1923-1982. For the foundation of the first in USSR Institute of Cybernetics, for development of digital automaton theory and for works in the field of macro-conveyor architectures of computer systems"
Development of cluster supercomputer SKIT. Total capacity over 10 TFLOPS (more than ten trillion operas./sec.) I.V.Sergienko, V.N.Koval. (2005). I.V.Sergienko, A.L.Golovinskiy (2012). Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Creation of Q-series line of computers for business, Office integrators "Ros'" data centers "Octava", Company "System Mobile Technologies". N.V.Kotyuk, O.I.Sosis etc. Kyiv.
Achievements of Ukrainians, who worked in Russia
There was developed and manufactured the first and the only in the world ternary "Setun" computer. N.P.Brucentsov. Moscow State university. (1956-1958).
There was developed and manufactured the first and the only in the world highly productive specialized computer for military applications using the system of computation in excess. I.Y.Akushskyi. Ministry of Defence of the USSR (1958).
There was launched production of the first in the world computer M-10 with multi size vectorial structure for systems of preventing missile attack and for common space supervision. M.A.Kartsev. Ministry of Radioindustry of the USSR, Moscow (1973).
For the first in the world there was offered and realized the concept of the fully parallel computer system - with multisequencing of all four levels: programs, commands, data and words (computing facilities of the basis of M-10 computer). M.A.Kartsev, Ministry of Radioindustry of the USSR, Moscow (1976-1980).
There was launched production of M-13 multiprocessor vectorial computer for re-equipment of systems of preventing missile attack and common space supervision. M.A.Kartsev. Ministry of Radioindustry of the USSR, Moscow, Moscow (1984).